It’s more accurate to say that the previous economic recovery ended in December , since the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research “determined that a peak in economic activity occurred in the U. Most of the economic data from the end of isn’t available yet, so one cannot do a full year retrospective. First, here’s the change in nonfarm payroll employment: Yes, this last recession was especially awful. That’s why they call it the Great Recession! The subsequent jobs recovery has been long and steady, and by this point has far outdistanced the recovery of the s. It counts only people who are actively looking for jobs, meaning that those who have given up are ignored.

Domenico Giannone

You don’t have to wait for them, though. The nonpartisan group often doesn’t declare a recession until after it’s over — but when unemployment is high as incomes fall, you may know it’s a recession long before any economic brain trust has made it official. Advertisement Take, say, most of this year.

Sep 20,  · The recession officially ended in June , according to the Business Cycle Dating Committee of the National Bureau of Economic Research, the official arbiter of such dates. As many economists had expected, this official end date makes the .

The chronology comprises alternating dates of peaks and troughs in economic activity. A recession is a period between a peak and a trough, and an expansion is a period between a trough and a peak. During a recession, a significant decline in economic activity spreads across the economy and can last from a few months to more than a year. Similarly, during an expansion, economic activity rises substantially, spreads across the economy, and usually lasts for several years.

In both recessions and expansions, brief reversals in economic activity may occur-a recession may include a short period of expansion followed by further decline; an expansion may include a short period of contraction followed by further growth. The Committee applies its judgment based on the above definitions of recessions and expansions and has no fixed rule to determine whether a contraction is only a short interruption of an expansion, or an expansion is only a short interruption of a contraction.

The most recent example of such a judgment that was less than obvious was in , when the Committee determined that the contraction that began in was not a continuation of the one that began in , but rather a separate full recession. The Committee does not have a fixed definition of economic activity.

Lucrezia Reichlin

The committee noted that the various indicators of economic activity normally used to determine the month of the business cycle peak were generally flat during the summer of Each of the major indicators reached a peak in a different month. During the summer, the month-to-month changes in these indicators were small.

Its business cycle dating committee, which is considered the arbiter of whether the US is in recession, met on Friday to make the decision. The NBER says that the US economic expansion lasted 73 months, from November , before contracting.

At its meeting, the committee determined that a trough in business activity occurred in the U. The trough marks the end of the recession that began in March and the beginning of an expansion. The recession lasted 8 months, which is slightly less than average for recessions since World War II. In determining that a trough occurred in November , the committee did not conclude that economic conditions since that month have been favorable or that the economy has returned to operating at normal capacity.

Rather, the committee determined only that the recession ended and a recovery began in that month. A recession is a period of falling economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real GDP, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales.

Domenico Giannone

He is generally considered a macroeconomist , but he describes himself as an “applied economist”. He is the chairman of the Business Cycle Dating Committee, the body responsible for setting the start and end dates of U. Hall is perhaps most famous for co-originating the flat tax with Alvin Rabushka. They co-authored a book with the same name. The two often act as advisors to countries in Eastern Europe that wish to adopt the flat tax. In , Hall changed the direction of research on consumption by showing that under rational expectations , consumption should be a martingale.

The Institute is at the centre of the National debate on the measurement and understanding of business cycle fluctuations. We start this process at the fundamental level. The UK has some excellent long run data on economic progress and some of the basic facts of business cycle peak and troughs have been explored in earlier work at the Institute.

Mallory for decades after its founding in , the company took on the Duracell name in when it was acquired by Dart Industries. Subsequently, the battery maker was involved in numerous acquisitions and mergers, including one of the largest leveraged buyouts LBOs of the s. Duracell’s distinctive copper and black color scheme has been around for more than three decades.

In addition to its alkaline batteries, the company sells primary lithium, zinc air, and rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries as well as a line of flashlights. Mallory Charging Up with Duracell: Mallory and his basic business tenets of “invest in research” and “the customer is King” laid the groundwork for Duracell back in Independent inventor Samuel Ruben entered the picture in and with Mallory introduced the world’s first mercury battery, forerunner of the alkaline battery.

Business Cycle Dating Committee, National Bureau of Economic Research

The Cooley-Rupert Economic Snapshot , our view of the current economic environment. Here you will find the latest version of the snapshot of the U. In all of our snapshots we present the data in a way that we find particularly useful for assessing where we are in the business cycle and tracking the U.

As sales rise, business owners are short in inventory so they raise their orders to factories. The factory employment thus increases. Once the business owners restock their inventories they cut back on factory sale orders. Factory workers face layoffs, declining retail sales and economic decline.

Michelle Francis Director, Eracura Consulting Michelle has worked as an environment and sustainability professional for 24 years in consultancy and the public and private sectors, setting up her first business in She specialises in advising a range of clients on sustainability best practice and environmental management, helping companies and organisations develop their approach to sustainability. She has acted in a variety of roles: She helped on all sides of the procurement journey, developing specifications and evaluating proposals on one hand and writing and mobilising successful bids on the other not on the same job!

As a board member of both the natural environment regulator and the pollution regulator in Scotland Michelle has gained an insight into stakeholder expectations and how boards operate and think. She is a solutions oriented person and thrives on helping find the win — win approach. This is a long way from the undergraduate research Michele carried out in the rainforests of what was then called Zaire!

Measuring European Business Cycles

At its meeting, the committee determined that a trough in business activity occurred in the U. The trough marks the end of the recession that began in December and the beginning of an expansion. The recession lasted 18 months, which makes it the longest of any recession since World War II.

of synthetic indexes of business cycle conditions (Stock and Watson, ). The main feature of business cycle uctuations is their pervasiveness across the economy.1 Hence, variables measuring di erent aspects of the economy can be considered as imperfect measures of a .

The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river system , largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq , northeastern Syria , southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Ages , the Renaissance , and the Enlightenment , as well as Christian culture.

Western culture is neither homogeneous nor unchanging. As with all other cultures, it has evolved and gradually changed over time. Nevertheless, it is possible to follow the evolution and history of the West, and appreciate its similarities and differences, its borrowings from, and contributions to, other cultures of humanity. Alexander the Great In Homeric literature , and right up until the time of Alexander the Great , for example in the accounts of the Persian Wars of Greeks against Persians by Herodotus , we see the paradigm of a contrast between the West and East.

Nevertheless, the Greeks felt they were the most civilized and saw themselves in the formulation of Aristotle as something between the wild barbarians of most of Europe and the soft, slavish Middle-Easterners. Ancient Greek science , philosophy , democracy , architecture , literature , and art provided a foundation embraced and built upon by the Roman Empire as it swept up Europe, including the Hellenic World in its conquests in the 1st century BCE.

The NBER’s Business Cycle Dating Committee

Its business cycle dating committee, which is considered the arbiter of whether the US is in recession, met on Friday to make the decision. It used a broad range of economic indicators, such as employment and production, to make this judgement. In a statement, the committee said that the “decline in economic activity in met the standard for a recession”. It said that employment peaked in December and has been falling every since.

Prescribed rules can be difficult to apply in identifying turning points in business cycles because economic variables do not all turn together, which is the basic problem facing the NBER dating committee.

Cascade use Cascade use of renewable feedstock means that the biomass is first used to produce biobased industrial products and afterwards — due to their favourable energy balance — for energy generation e. This way, the feedstock is used efficiently and the added value is increased considerably. Sound certification systems should be based on ideally harmonised European standards or technical specifications according to CEN, for example and be performed by independent third-party laboratories.

On this basis, corresponding labels can be awarded that help the consumer to make an informed decision. The CO2 equivalent of a specific amount of a greenhouse gas is calculated as the mass of a given greenhouse gas multiplied by its global warming potential. CO2-neutrality CO2-neutrality describes a material or product having a net zero carbon footprint.

The amount of carbon released is balanced out by an equivalent amount, either sequestered or offset, or by purchasing sufficient carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Rhetorical and Analytical Significance Tables Table 1. A recession is one of several discrete phases in the overall business cycle. The term may often be used loosely to describe an economy that is slowing down or characterized by weakness in at least one major sector like the housing market. When used by economists, “recession” means a significant decline in overall economic activity that lasts more than a few months.

NBER business cycle dating committee is the generally recognized arbiter of the dates of the beginnings and ends of recessions.

Abstract. This paper is an exercise in dating the Euro area business cycle on a monthly basis. Using a quite flexible interpolation routine, we construct several monthly series of Euro area real GDP, and then apply the Bry-Boschan () procedure.

Unless there is an extraordinarily sharp and quick reversal of activity, this peak will mark the onset of a recession. The Committee examined a wide variety of data on the economy in reaching its judgement that the peak occurred in January. Some of the major indicators which reached their cyclical peaks in January are total industrial production, retail sales in constant dollars, and nonfarm employee hours.

Other indicators reached their peaks just before or just after January. Total real personal income peaked in December Employment reached its highest value in February Since February, every cyclical indicator has declined sharply. The Committee noted that industrial production reached its one-month high in March , early in the year-long slowdown that preceded the business cycle peak.

The Business Cycle

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